Over the past few years, increasing public and political pressure has supported legalization of medical marijuana. One of the main thrusts in this effort has related to the treatment of refractory epilepsy—especially in children with Dravet syndrome—using cannabidiol (CBD). Despite initiatives in numerous states to at least legalize possession of CBD oil for treating epilepsy, little published evidence is available to prove or disprove the efficacy and safety of CBD in patients with epilepsy. This review highlights some of the basic science theory behind the use of CBD, summarizes published data on clinical use of CBD for epilepsy, and highlights issues related to the use of currently available CBD products.
The furry subjects, 277 Wistar rats, were given a dose of CBD immediately after receiving a small electric shock. The CBD-treated subjects were found to spend less time frozen in fear when reintroduced to the context of the fearful event. This means the CBD disrupted consolidation (or more simply put: memory strengthening) of their specific and long-term fear memory.

CBD oil is not legal everywhere. It is banned/restricted by countries such as UAE, Dubai, and Saudi Arabia. Although CBD oil is illegal in many of the US states too, some have legalized its use for medicinal purposes. While the number would be ever-changing, as of 2016 there are 17 states in the US which have legalized the use of low THC, high CBD products for medical reasons in limited situations. These states include Alabama, Georgia, Iowa, Kentucky, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, and Virginia. It is advisable to consult your local health specialist before use.
CBD is well tolerated in humans with doses up to 600 mg not resulting in psychotic symptoms (15). In the few small placebo-controlled studies performed, no significant CNS effects were noted. Oral CBD undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism via CYP3A4, with a bioavailability of 6%. Following single doses in humans, the half-life of CBD when taken orally is about 1 to 2 days.1 In vitro studies have shown that CBD is a potent inhibitor of multiple CYP isozymes, including CYP 2C and CYP3A (16, 17). Whether these in vitro observations are relevant at plasma concentrations likely to be seen in patients is unclear. In addition, given its metabolism via CYP3A4, clinical trials of CBD in patients receiving enzyme-inducing AEDs, such as carbamazepine or phenytoin, will require detailed pharmacokinetic studies.
In your internet travels, you may also come across products called “terpsolates.” The manufacturers of these products infuse CBD Isolate with terpenes (but not cannabinoids like THC). These terpenes may enhance the effectiveness of CBD — or maybe they just make it smell good. This may be a good place to point out that not all CBD products are created equal. The industry is still largely unregulated, and the quality and quantity of CBD in a given product will vary wildly. Third-party testing definitely helps to monitor companies’ claims, but it’s still up to you as the consumer to do your homework on the best CBD products.
As mentioned above, CBDPure is a natural oil extracted through cold pressing and CO2 procedures from Cannabis sativa. Specialists have identified over 80 compounds known as cannabinoids. Their research so far showed that CBD is the predominant cannabinoid, accounting for over 40% of the cannabinoids concentration. It is also the most beneficial for human health, at least from the cannabinoids studied so far.
Green Label hemp oil has the lowest CBD content of our RSHO™ because the cannabinoids in the oil have not been decarboxylated, making Green Label oil higher in CBDa than our other oils, containing a total of 50 mg of CBD per serving. Our popular Blue Label RSHO™ registers in the middle of our pure hemp oil potencies, containing 85 mg of CBD per serving. Finally, our filtered Gold Label RSHO™ tops out with 120 mg of CBD per serving, the highest of any of our products.
There’s still a lot of unknown territory, but early evidence for CBD’s efficacy is more than enough to justify further large-scale clinical studies — some of which are already in the works. These studies also point to the variety of effective ways to take CBD. This is an important point to keep in mind if you find yourself shopping for CBD products and wondering if the best CBD for pain is a topical, a tincture, or a vape product.
Thank you. I am 81 and started the CBD drops night and morning. I sleep better and no longer suffer the excruciating pain from diverticulitis. I saw somewhere that for my asthma I need the THC so got some (totally illegal here in South Africa). I think it is helping. The diagnosis of COPD was made some years ago and as a health psychologist I do all I can to remain healthy for my 97th birthday!! (Both my grandmother and greatgrandmother did so I believe I will too).
Other targets for CBD include transient receptor potential (TRP) channels that are involved with the modulation of intracellular calcium (1, 6). Cannabinoids are highly lipophilic, allowing access to intracellular sites of action, resulting in increases in calcium in a variety of cell types including hippocampal neurons. CBD actions on calcium homeostasis may provide a basis for CBD neuroprotective properties.
Vape oil: CBD vape oil is used for vaping CBD. This requires the use of an e-cigarette or vape pen, which can have side effects when chemicals are heated to high temperatures. There are also CBD waxes available that are used for dabbing the cannabis compound. This also requires heating a small amount of the wax and using a dabbing pen. This isn’t recommended for beginners, as it’s usually a higher concentration of CBD.

Other targets for CBD include transient receptor potential (TRP) channels that are involved with the modulation of intracellular calcium (1, 6). Cannabinoids are highly lipophilic, allowing access to intracellular sites of action, resulting in increases in calcium in a variety of cell types including hippocampal neurons. CBD actions on calcium homeostasis may provide a basis for CBD neuroprotective properties.
This is why Amanda Oliver, 31, a career consultant in Charleston, SC, pops a CBD gummy bear each night before bed. “I used to lie there tossing and turning as my mind raced from work projects to whether I had set the home alarm,” Oliver says. One piece of candy with 15 milligrams (mg) of CBD is enough to shut off her brain and facilitate sleep. She also swears by the CBD oil she takes at the height of her period, which she says quells her debilitating cramps.
CBD is one of over 60 compounds found in cannabis that belong to a class of ingredients called cannabinoids. Until recently, THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) was getting most of the attention because it’s the ingredient in cannabis that produces intoxicating effects in users. But CBD is also present in high concentrations — and the world is awakening to its possible benefits.
The important thing is that you have to be SUPER careful when selecting CBD oils. Since the cannabis industry is not FDA-regulated, there have been dozens and dozens of companies trying to get away with selling very low quality (and even potentially toxic), “snake oils” that have been extracted using harsh chemical solvents like butane and hexane. Make sure you stay away from cheap products like these, as they could damage your health.
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Research on CBD and anxiety has generally looked at cannabis as a whole product, not as CBD as a standalone compound. Some studies suggest that it can help with anxiety: like this 2011 study that suggests CBDcan reduce social anxiety or this 2015 review that says CBD could be promising for many forms of anxiety. It’s also important to consider whether the CBD comes from the cannabis plant and therefore may include THC, a cannabinoid that for some, induces anxiety. Read our comprehensive article on CBD and anxiety, here.
Featuring the same benefits as our pure RSHO™ hemp oil in a reduced potency, another of our midrange products, RSHO™ liquid, contains 31 mg of CBD per serving. Available in Green, Blue, and Gold Label oils, RSHO™ liquid combines our flagship RSHO™ with medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil derived from wholesome coconut oil and sustainably sourced palm oil. Unlike RSHO™ pure hemp oils, RSHO™ liquid doesn’t need to be refrigerated, making it convenient to store wherever you need it most.
Our hemp oil tinctures offer the most accessible means to getting started with CBD hemp oil supplements. Registering our lowest price point among our products, our 1 oz tinctures contain the lowest concentration of CBD in our products. With around 1 mg of CBD per serving, our 1 oz tinctures are good for those looking to integrate the smallest amount of CBD into their daily routine. The tinctures in the 2 oz bottle add 2.5 times the potency, for a total of 500 mg per 2 oz bottle.
The review evaluated how targeting the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) could impact colitis. The ECS is a biological system within mammals that is made up of three components: cannabinoid receptors (the things that receive chemical signals outside the cell), endocannabinoids (small molecules that activate cannabinoid receptors), and metabolic enzymes that break down endocannabinoids after they are used.
To make matters more confusing, nine states (including California, Washington, and Colorado) let residents buy cannabis-based products with or without THC. Nearly two dozen other “medical marijuana states” allow the sale of cannabis, including capsules, tinctures, and other items containing CBD or THC, at licensed dispensaries to people whose doctors have certified that they have an approved condition (the list varies by state but includes chronic pain, PTSD, cancer, autism, Crohn’s disease, and multiple sclerosis). Sixteen more states legalized CBD for certain diseases.
The endocannabinoid system is spread throughout your brain and body, but primarily throughout your central nervous system. The interaction between cannabinoids and receptors is what produces effects like the regulation of mood, pain, appetite, inflammation, and memory. Plant-based cannabinoids, found in cannabis plants, also interact with the receptors (whimsically named CB1 and CB2) in the endocannabinoid system, and each affects your body in different ways. CBD and its infamous cousin THC are the 2 most well-known cannabinoids.
A group of 15 patients who received CBD over a period ranging from one month to one year were surveyed to gather various data. The researchers sought information about the patient and the caregiver, changes observed in the seizures, neuropsychological effects, side effects and the family’s overall perception following the use of cannabidiol. This simple observational study identified some very encouraging findings:

This is good news for the best CBD oil companies because the Farm Bill allows for the legal cultivation of industrial hemp, under certain circumstances, which can be a source of CBD. But CBD can also come from non-industrial hemp, namely the marijuana plant that most are more familiar with. Therefore, whether or not CBD oil for pain is legal can be a question of which “version” of the cannabis plant it was sourced from. If it was sourced from industrial hemp, (which contains less than 0.3% THC by volume), and it was cultivated under the Farm Bill, then it is legal.
CBD stands for cannabidiol. It is the second most prevalent of the active ingredients of cannabis (marijuana). While CBD is an essential component of medical marijuana, it is derived directly from the hemp plant, which is a cousin of the marijuana plant. While CBD is a component of marijuana (one of hundreds), by itself it does not cause a “high.” According to a report from the World Health Organization, “In humans, CBD exhibits no effects indicative of any abuse or dependence potential…. To date, there is no evidence of public health related problems associated with the use of pure CBD.”
Customer Service: There are multiple ways to get in touch with customer service, and Pure Hemp Botanicals’ customer service representatives are both quick to respond and forthcoming with information. On the down side, free shipping kicks in at $100 — otherwise it’s a pricey $9.99 flat rate. And you can return products, but only if they’re unopened.
With so many companies popping up every day, we’ve done the hard work for you. We bring you the best CBD oil guide and the top 25 brands that made our list based on CBD oil quality, effectiveness, customer service and of course price. Please note, this article is updated constantly, so don’t forget come back from time to time to see the most updated information.
A number of difficulties exist in evaluating published data on CBD or marijuana use for epilepsy. The extremely limited published studies were small, poorly described, and not well designed. Contributing to the difficulty of interpreting published studies, CBD products are not produced under the guidance of good manufacturing practices (GMP) and are not subject to regulations governing labeling, purity, and reliability. In other words, currently, there is no guarantee of consistency between products, or even differing lots produced by the same manufacturer. Without independent testing (e.g. USP certification) of CBD products for content and purity, as well as bioavailability testing of specific products, uncertainty surrounds the use of available CBD products in routine clinical settings.
CBD stands for cannabidiol. It is the second most prevalent of the active ingredients of cannabis (marijuana). While CBD is an essential component of medical marijuana, it is derived directly from the hemp plant, which is a cousin of the marijuana plant. While CBD is a component of marijuana (one of hundreds), by itself it does not cause a “high.” According to a report from the World Health Organization, “In humans, CBD exhibits no effects indicative of any abuse or dependence potential…. To date, there is no evidence of public health related problems associated with the use of pure CBD.”
Unlike THC, CBD will not make you high. That said, this doesn’t mean CBD is not at all psychoactive, as many assert, says Jahan Marcu, PhD, director of experimental pharmacology and behavior at the International Research Center on Cannabis and Mental Health in New York City: “CBD does change cognition. It affects mood, which is why people take it for anxiety. And some find that it makes them more alert.”
Side effects of CBD include nausea, fatigue and irritability. CBD can increase the level in your blood of the blood thinner coumadin, and it can raise levels of certain other medications in your blood by the exact same mechanism that grapefruit juice does. A significant safety concern with CBD is that it is primarily marketed and sold as a supplement, not a medication. Currently, the FDA does not regulate the safety and purity of dietary supplements. So you cannot know for sure that the product you buy has active ingredients at the dose listed on the label. In addition, the product may contain other (unknown) elements. We also don’t know the most effective therapeutic dose of CBD for any particular medical condition.
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